Following the Nazi invasion of France, he even went so far in December, , as to write a letter to Field Marshall Petain, head of the Nazi supported puppet government in Vichy, warning of Jewish-Masonic conspiracies. How credible are these supposed documents?
Were they actually found in the French national archives? Technically, yes, they were found in the archives in the early s. However, there is no record of them having ever been properly entered or registered there. The documents appear to have been planted so that they could be found there, but lacking registration within the archives themselves, there is no way they can be considered valid. So where did Les Dossiers Secretes come from? As explained on www. This claim flies in the face of everything we know about the religious practices of the ancient world.
Jupiter or Zeus was King of the Gods, the ruler of the world, and was firmly in charge. For example, The Iliad, with its chronicle of the machinations of gods and goddesses, is extremely warlike and is concerned overwhelmingly with matters masculine, such as bravery in battle. Women are prizes to be won in battle. As a result Christian documents — especially in Rome — all but vanished.
When Constantine commissioned new versions of these documents, it enabled custodians of orthodoxy to revise, edit, and rewrite their material as they saw fit, in accordance with their tenents.
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It was at this point that most of the crucial alterations in the New Testament were probably made and Jesus assumed the unique status he has enjoyed ever since. The HBHG authors do not cite any references for their claims of wholesale 4th-century biblical rewriting, undoubtedly because none could be found. Nonetheless, the claim has by now taken on a life of its own as a modern urban legend.
What is the historical truth? What the HBHG authors and Brown have done is to distort beyond all recognition a well-known event in church history — the Nicene Council of — which was indeed organized by Constantine on behalf of church leaders. The Council was convened to resolve several major theological disputes, none of which involved Mary Magdalene, matriarchy, feminism, new gospels, or, for that matter, Constantine. Homo Ousion same substance vs. Homoi Ousion like substance : The sticking point at the Nicene Council was a concept found nowhere in the Bible: homoousion. According to the concept of homoousion, Christ the Son was consubstantial sharing the same substance with the Father.
Arius and Eusebius disagreed. Arius thought the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were materially separate from each other, and that the Father created the Son. The Nicene Creed still recited in many churches today is a succinct summary of the doctrines agreed upon by this conclave. There is an excellent scholarly article on the Nicene Council in The Catholic Encyclopedia, 9 summarizing the whole agenda of that council. The only role played by Constantine was to urge the squabbling bishops to all come together in one place, to make available the resources for that to happen, and to urge them to stop squabbling.
This is highly misleading. No churchman was suggesting that Jesus was merely human. The debate concerned whether Jesus the Son was in some sense subordinate to the Father, or fully equal to him. This is simply absurd. To put it bluntly, there is no historical evidence whatsoever to support this remarkable claim, and quite a bit to disprove it. The emperor did indeed order that new copies of the Bible be made then a laborious manual process , but they were for use in the new churches that were planned, and they were identical to the Bible texts already in existence.
Many New Testament manuscripts and fragments pre-dating the Council of Nicaea still exist, and their text is the same as the versions we know today. The texts approved by Athenasius are the familiar canonical texts of today, while most of those disapproved are still extant, but seldom read, and tend to be of later composition. The New Testament Apocrypha, the books that Athenasius sought to ban, are widely available in translation today. The conventional answer to this question is that Mary was a former prostitute who repented and became a follower of Jesus.
Nowhere in the New Testament does it say that she was a prostitute, although Jesus is said to have cast seven demons out of her Luke That she was a prostitute was a tradition that began in the sixth century with a sermon by Pope Gregory the Great. There are excellent reasons to doubt the historical reality of all of these interpretations.
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The Roman philosopher Celsus wrote a book On the True Doctrine opposing Christianity partially preserved only in the Contra Celsum, a work by the Church father Origen opposing Celsus, all such early anti-Christian writings having long since been destroyed. Is it not true, good sir, that you fabricated the story of your birth from a virgin to quiet rumours about the true and unsavory circumstances of your origins?
Is it not the case that when her deceit was discovered, to wit, that she was pregnant by a Roman soldier named Panthera she was driven away by her husband — the carpenter — and convicted of adultery? Indeed, is it not so that in her disgrace, wandering far from home, she gave birth to a male child in silence and humiliation? This is discussed at length in my book The Making of the Messiah. What does this have to do with Mary Magdalene? The Biblical scholar R. Indeed, it is possible that all of the confusing Marys of the gospels may be in fact the same woman.
A number of popular books have convinced many that the discovery of the Nag Hammadi texts proves the existence of a more feminist-oriented version of ancient Gnostic Christianity. Certain Gnostic texts undeniably speak of the feminine in terms of contempt.
Through these was revealed the defect in the female. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the Kingdom of Heaven. See Goddess Unmasked by Philip G. Davis for an excellent overview of the unscholarly foundation on which feminist scholars have built such claims. Most rational persons will conclude that a book is wholly unserious when they read a passage such as the following from The Da Vinci Code :. Like Leonardo, Walt Disney loved infusing hidden messages and symbolism in his art.
It is indeed possible that Brown included this section as a warning to the reader not to take anything in this book seriously. But if so, he did it in a cypher so opaque — a reductio ad absurdum — that almost nobody has yet managed to decode it.europeschool.com.ua/profiles/xylamunyr/madura-busca-chico-tarragona.php
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This supposition is strengthened by the subsequent solemn pronouncement that the Age of Aquarius is about to dawn , as if this were some freshly-decoded development of a conspiracy, instead of a foolish and trite expression popular a generation ago. The rational person can enjoy reading works of fiction or science fiction, even trite fiction like The Da Vinci Code , without worrying excessively about obvious absurdities within the story.
But a problem arises when a work of fiction explicitly claims to be more than a work of fiction, when it resonates with other widespread misinformation within the culture, and when 25 million readers are bamboozled by its specious assertions. Paul by his own words never met the alive Jesus and very interesting that both Peter and James who are alleged to have lived with him appear to have a drastically different view on who jesus came to save or who is allowed into their sect.
You can read the the entire letter in only a couple of minuts. The controversy in the Church at the time was whether non-Jews had to become ethnic Jews in order to be Christians. Or, more susinctly, is becoming a Jew a predicate to being saved? There is no need for a person to give up their cultural identity to become a Christian. Paul states in Galatians that Peter actually agreed with him on the matter, going so far as to eat with non-Jews. James, who was actually not one of the Disciples either, believed that Gentiles should become Jews first, then Christians, and weilded the instutional authority of the Jerusalem church.
Paul and James were pretty well diametric opposites, theologically and politically.
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Besides the question of good works in salvation, James was basically assumed into heirarchical leadership in the Jerusalem Church because of his kin relationship to Jesus. Paul stood outside of the heirarchy of the Church and takes up a good part of Galatians expressing his pride over the fact.
Contra the heirarchical Priestly system of Judaism he asserts a new class: the Apostle, an egalitarian role open to any person who testifies to a personal experience with the risen Christ. Comparing this to the teachings of Jesus preserved in the Gospels, I think Paul is far more in line than is James. Jesus was radically egalitarian, and I tink Paul grasped this fact as deeply and intutively as only someone previously dedicated to the violent eradication of Christians could be.
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And to the incomparable Heide Lange - tireless champion of The Da Vinci Code, agent extraordinaire, and trusted friend. I cannot fully express my gratitude to the exceptional team at Doubleday, for their generosity, faith, and superb guidance. Thank you especially to Bill Thomas and Steve Rubin, who believed in this book from the start.
My thanks also to the initial core of early in-house supporters, headed by Michael Palgon, Suzanne Herz, Janelle Moburg, Jackie Everly, and Adrienne Sparks, as well as to the talented people of Doubleday's sales force. And finally, in a novel drawing so heavily on the sacred feminine, I would be remiss if I did not mention the two extraordinary women who have touched my life.
First, my mother, Connie Brown - fellow scribe, nurturer, musician, and role model.
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